"The Arabian Nights Entertainments"
The Arabian Nights Entertainments
Selected and Edited by Andrew Lang
Illustrated By Rene Bull
H. J. Ford
W. Heath Robinson
Each link is contans a few stories from the book
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The stories in the Fairy Books have generally been such as old women in country places tell to their grandchildren.
Nobody knows how old they are, or who told them first. The children of Ham, Shem and Japhet may have listened to them in the
Ark, on wet days. Hector's little boy may have heard them in Troy Town, for it is certain that Homer knew them, and that some
of them were written down in Egypt about the time of Moses.
People in different countries tell them differently, but they are always the same stories, really, whether among little
Zulus, at the Cape, or little Eskimo, near the North Pole. The changes are only in matters of manners and customs; such as
wearing clothes or not, meeting lions who talk in the warm countries, or talking bears in the cold countries. There are
plenty of kings and queens in the fairy tales, just because long ago there were plenty of kings in the country. A gentleman
who would be a squire now was a kind of king in Scotland in very old times, and the same in other places. These old stories,
never forgotten, were taken down in writing in different ages, but mostly in this century, in all sorts of languages. These
ancient stories are the contents of the Fairy books.
Now "The Arabian Nights," some of which, but not nearly all, are given in this volume, are only fairy tales of the East.
The people of Asia, Arabia, and Persia told them in their own way, not for children, but for grown-up people. There were no
novels then, nor any printed books, of course; but there were people whose profession it was to amuse men and women by telling
tales. They dressed the fairy stories up, and made the characters good Mahommedans, living in Bagdad or India. The events
were often supposed to happen in the reign of the great Caliph, or ruler of the Faithful, Haroun al Raschid, who lived in
Bagdad in 786-808 A.D. The vizir who accompanies the Caliph was also a real person of the great family of the Barmecides. He
was put to death by the Caliph in a very cruel way, nobody ever knew why. The stories must have been told in their present
shape a good long while after the Caliph died, when nobody knew very exactly what had really happened. At last some
storyteller thought of writing down the tales, and fixing them into a kind of framework, as if they had all been narrated to a
cruel Sultan by his wife. Probably the tales were written down about the time when Edward I. was fighting Robert Bruce. But
changes were made in them at different times, and a great deal that is very dull and stupid was put in, and plenty of verses.
Neither the verses nor the dull pieces are given in this book.
People in France and England knew almost nothing about "The Arabian Nights" till the reigns of Queen Anne and George I.,
when they were translated into French by Monsieur Galland. Grown-up people were then very fond of fairy tales, and they
thought these Arab stories the best that they had ever read. They were delighted with Ghouls (who lived among the tombs) and
Geni, who seemed to be a kind of ogres, and with Princesses who work magic spells, and with Peris, who are Arab fairies.
Sindbad had adventures which perhaps came out of the Odyssey of Homer; in fact, all the East had contributed its wonders, and
sent them to Europe in one parcel. Young men once made a noise at Monsieur Galland's windows in the dead of night, and asked
him to tell them one of his marvellous tales. Nobody talked of anything but dervishes and vizirs, rocs and peris. The stories
were translated from French into all languages, and only Bishop Atterbury complained that the tales were not likely to be
true, and had no moral. The bishops was presently banished for being on the side of Prince Charlie's father, and had leisure
to repent of being so solemn.
In this book "The Arabian Nights" are translated from the French version of Monsieur Galland, who dropped out the poetry
and a great deal of what the Arabian authors thought funny, though it seems wearisome to us. In this book the stories are
shortened here and there, and omissions are made of pieces only suitable for Arabs and old gentlemen. The translations are by
the writers of the tales in the Fairy Books, and the pictures are by Mr. Ford.
I can remember reading "The Arabian Nights" when I was six years old, in dirty yellow old volumes of small type with no
pictures, and I hope children who read them with Mr. Ford's pictures will be as happy as I was then in the company of Aladdin
and Sindbad the Sailor.
The Arabian Nights
In the chronicles of the ancient dynasty of the Sassanidae, who reigned for about four hundred years, from Persia to the
borders of China, beyond the great river Ganges itself, we read the praises of one of the kings of this race, who was said to
be the best monarch of his time. His subjects loved him, and his neighbors feared him, and when he died he left his kingdom
in a more prosperous and powerful condition than any king had done before him.
The two sons who survived him loved each other tenderly, and it was a real grief to the elder, Schahriar, that the laws of
the empire forbade him to share his dominions with his brother Schahzeman. Indeed, after ten years, during which this state of
things had not ceased to trouble him, Schahriar cut off the country of Great Tartary from the Persian Empire and made his
Now the Sultan Schahriar had a wife whom he loved more than all the world, and his greatest happiness was to surround her
with splendour, and to give her the finest dresses and the most beautiful jewels. It was therefore with the deepest shame and
sorrow that he accidentally discovered, after several years, that she had deceived him completely, and her whole conduct
turned out to have been so bad, that he felt himself obliged to carry out the law of the land, and order the grand-vizir to
put her to death. The blow was so heavy that his mind almost gave way, and he declared that he was quite sure that at bottom
all women were as wicked as the sultana, if you could only find them out, and that the fewer the world contained the better.
So every evening he married a fresh wife and had her strangled the following morning before the grand-vizir, whose duty it was
to provide these unhappy brides for the Sultan. The poor man fulfilled his task with reluctance, but there was no escape, and
every day saw a girl married and a wife dead.
This behaviour caused the greatest horror in the town, where nothing was heard but cries and lamentations. In one house
was a father weeping for the loss of his daughter, in another perhaps a mother trembling for the fate of her child; and
instead of the blessings that had formerly been heaped on the Sultan's head, the air was now full of curses.
The grand-vizir himself was the father of two daughters, of whom the elder was called Scheherazade, and the younger
Dinarzade. Dinarzade had no particular gifts to distinguish her from other girls, but her sister was clever and courageous in
the highest degree. Her father had given her the best masters in philosophy, medicine, history and the fine arts, and besides
all this, her beauty excelled that of any girl in the kingdom of Persia.
One day, when the grand-vizir was talking to his eldest daughter, who was his delight and pride, Scheherazade said to him,
"Father, I have a favour to ask of you. Will you grant it to me?"
"I can refuse you nothing," replied he, "that is just and reasonable."
"Then listen," said Scheherazade. "I am determined to stop this barbarous practice of the Sultan's, and to deliver the
girls and mothers from the awful fate that hangs over them."
"It would be an excellent thing to do," returned the grand-vizir, "but how do you propose to accomplish it?"
"My father," answered Scheherazade, "it is you who have to provide the Sultan daily with a fresh wife, and I implore you,
by all the affection you bear me, to allow the honour to fall upon me."
"Have you lost your senses?" cried the grand-vizir, starting back in horror. "What has put such a thing into your head?
You ought to know by this time what it means to be the sultan's bride!"
"Yes, my father, I know it well," replied she, "and I am not afraid to think of it. If I fail, my death will be a
glorious one, and if I succeed I shall have done a great service to my country."
"It is of no use," said the grand-vizir, "I shall never consent. If the Sultan was to order me to plunge a dagger in your
heart, I should have to obey. What a task for a father! Ah, if you do not fear death, fear at any rate the anguish you would
"Once again, my father," said Scheherazade, "will you grant me what I ask?"
"What, are you still so obstinate?" exclaimed the grand-vizir. "Why are you so resolved upon your own ruin?"
But the maiden absolutely refused to attend to her father's words, and at length, in despair, the grand-vizir was obliged
to give way, and went sadly to the palace to tell the Sultan that the following evening he would bring him Scheherazade.
The Sultan received this news with the greatest astonishment.
"How have you made up your mind," he asked, "to sacrifice your own daughter to me?"
"Sire," answered the grand-vizir, "it is her own wish. Even the sad fate that awaits her could not hold her back."
"Let there be no mistake, vizir," said the Sultan. "Remember you will have to take her life yourself. If you refuse, I
swear that your head shall pay forfeit."
"Sire," returned the vizir. "Whatever the cost, I will obey you. Though a father, I am also your subject." So the Sultan
told the grand-vizir he might bring his daughter as soon as he liked.
The vizir took back this news to Scheherazade, who received it as if it had been the most pleasant thing in the world. She
thanked her father warmly for yielding to her wishes, and, seeing him still bowed down with grief, told him that she hoped he
would never repent having allowed her to marry the Sultan. Then she went to prepare herself for the marriage, and begged that
her sister Dinarzade should be sent for to speak to her.
When they were alone, Scheherazade addressed her thus:
"My dear sister; I want your help in a very important affair. My father is going to take me to the palace to celebrate my
marriage with the Sultan. When his Highness receives me, I shall beg him, as a last favour, to let you sleep in our chamber,
so that I may have your company during the last night I am alive. If, as I hope, he grants me my wish, be sure that you wake
me an hour before the dawn, and speak to me in these words: "My sister, if you are not asleep, I beg you, before the sun
rises, to tell me one of your charming stories." Then I shall begin, and I hope by this means to deliver the people from the
terror that reigns over them." Dinarzade replied that she would do with pleasure what her sister wished.
When the usual hour arrived the grand-vizir conducted Scheherazade to the palace, and left her alone with the Sultan, who
bade her raise her veil and was amazed at her beauty. But seeing her eyes full of tears, he asked what was the matter.
"Sire," replied Scheherazade, "I have a sister who loves me as tenderly as I love her. Grant me the favour of allowing her to
sleep this night in the same room, as it is the last we shall be together." Schahriar consented to Scheherazade's petition
and Dinarzade was sent for.
An hour before daybreak Dinarzade awoke, and exclaimed, as she had promised, "My dear sister, if you are not asleep, tell
me I pray you, before the sun rises, one of your charming stories. It is the last time that I shall have the pleasure of
Scheherazade did not answer her sister, but turned to the Sultan. "Will your highness permit me to do as my sister asks?"
"Willingly," he answered. So Scheherazade began.
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The illustrations are by Rene Bull (1872 - 1942) illustrations 1912) and Maxfield Parish (1870 - 1966) illustrations 1909) and W. Heath Robinson (1872 - 1944) illustrations 1899) also H. J. Ford (1860- 1941) illustrations 1898)