"The Arabian Nights Entertainments"
"As I grew up, and was allowed more liberty, I went every year to pay a visit to my uncle's court, and usually stayed there about two months. "
The Arabian Nights Entertainments
Selected and Edited by Andrew Lang
Illustrated By Rene Bull
H. J. Ford
W. Heath Robinson
Story of the Three Calenders, Sons of Kings, and of Five Ladies of Bagdad
In the reign of the Caliph Haroun-al-Raschid, there lived at Bagdad a porter who, in spite of his humble calling, was an
intelligent and sensible man. One morning he was sitting in his usual place with his basket before him, waiting to be hired,
when a tall young lady, covered with a long muslin veil, came up to him and said, "Pick up your basket and follow me." The
porter, who was greatly pleased by her appearance and voice, jumped up at once, poised his basket on his head, and accompanied
the lady, saying to himself as he went, "Oh, happy day! Oh, lucky meeting!"
The lady soon stopped before a closed door, at which she knocked. It was opened by an old man with a long white beard, to
whom the lady held out money without speaking. The old man, who seemed to understand what she wanted, vanished into the
house, and returned bringing a large jar of wine, which the porter placed in his basket. Then the lady signed to him to
follow, and they went their way.
The next place she stopped at was a fruit and flower shop, and here she bought a large quantity of apples, apricots,
peaches, and other things, with lilies, jasmine, and all sorts of sweet-smelling plants. From this shop she went to a
butcher's, a grocer's, and a poulterer's, till at last the porter exclaimed in despair, "My good lady, if you had only told me
you were going to buy enough provisions to stock a town, I would have brought a horse, or rather a camel." The lady laughed,
and told him she had not finished yet, but after choosing various kinds of scents and spices from a druggist's store, she
halted before a magnificent palace, at the door of which she knocked gently. The porteress who opened it was of such beauty
that the eyes of the man were quite dazzled, and he was the more astonished as he saw clearly that she was no slave. The lady
who had led him hither stood watching him with amusement, till the porteress exclaimed, "Why don't you come in, my sister?
This poor man is so heavily weighed down that he is ready to drop."
When they were both inside the door was fastened, and they all three entered a large court, surrounded by an open-work
gallery. At one end of the court was a platform, and on the platform stood an amber throne supported by four ebony columns,
garnished with pearls and diamonds. In the middle of the court stood a marble basin filled with water from the mouth of a
The porter looked about him, noticing and admiring everything; but his attention was specially attracted by a third lady
sitting on the throne, who was even more beautiful than the other two. By the respect shown to her by the others, he judged
that she must be the eldest, and in this he was right. This lady's name was Zobeida, the porteress was Sadie, and the
housekeeper was Amina. At a word from Zobeida, Sadie and Amina took the basket from the porter, who was glad enough to be
relieved from its weight; and when it was emptied, paid him handsomely for its use. But instead of taking up his basket and
going away, the man still lingered, till Zobeida inquired what he was waiting for, and if he expected more money. "Oh, madam,"
returned he, "you have already given me too much, and I fear I may have been guilty of rudeness in not taking my departure at
once. But, if you will pardon my saying so, I was lost in astonishment at seeing such beautiful ladies by themselves. A
company of women without men is, however, as dull as a company of men without women." And after telling some stories to prove
his point, he ended by entreating them to let him stay and make a fourth at their dinner.
The ladies were rather amused at the man's assurances and after some discussion it was agreed that he should be allowed to
stay, as his society might prove entertaining. "But listen, friend," said Zobeida, "if we grant your request, it is only on
condition that you behave with the utmost politeness, and that you keep the secret of our way of living, which chance has
revealed to you." Then they all sat down to table, which had been covered by Amina with the dishes she had bought.
After the first few mouthfuls Amina poured some wine into a golden cup. She first drank herself, according to the Arab
custom, and then filled it for her sisters. When it came to the porter's turn he kissed Amina's hand, and sang a song, which
he composed at the moment in praise of the wine. The three ladies were pleased with the song, and then sang themselves, so
that the repast was a merry one, and lasted much longer than usual.
At length, seeing that the sun was about to set, Sadia said to the porter, "Rise and go; it is now time for us to
"Oh, madam," replied he, "how can you desire me to quit you in the state in which I am? Between the wine I have drunk,
and the pleasure of seeing you, I should never find the way to my house. Let me remain here till morning, and when I have
recovered my senses I will go when you like."
"Let him stay," said Amina, who had before proved herself his friend. "It is only just, as he has given us so much
"If you wish it, my sister," replied Zobeida; "but if he does, I must make a new condition. Porter," she continued,
turning to him, "if you remain, you must promise to ask no questions about anything you may see. If you do, you may perhaps
hear what you don't like."
This being settled, Amina brought in supper, and lit up the hall with a number of sweet smelling tapers. They then sat
down again at the table, and began with fresh appetites to eat, drink, sing, and recite verses. In fact, they were all
enjoying themselves mightily when they heard a knock at the outer door, which Sadie rose to open. She soon returned saying
that three Calenders, all blind in the right eye, and all with their heads, faces, and eyebrows clean shaved, begged for
admittance, as they were newly arrived in Bagdad, and night had already fallen. "They seem to have pleasant manners," she
added, "but you have no idea how funny they look. I am sure we should find their company diverting."
Zobeida and Amina made some difficulty about admitting the new comers, and Sadie knew the reason of their hesitation. But
she urged the matter so strongly that Zobeida was at last forced to consent. "Bring them in, then," said she, "but make them
understand that they are not to make remarks about what does not concern them, and be sure to make them read the inscription
over the door." For on the door was written in letters of gold, "Whoso meddles in affairs that are no business of his, will
hear truths that will not please him."
The three Calenders bowed low on entering, and thanked the ladies for their kindness and hospitality. The ladies replied
with words of welcome, and they were all about to seat themselves when the eyes of the Calenders fell on the porter, whose
dress was not so very unlike their own, though he still wore all the hair that nature had given him. "This," said one of them,
"is apparently one of our Arab brothers, who has rebelled against our ruler."
The porter, although half asleep from the wine he had drunk, heard the words, and without moving cried angrily to the
Calender, "Sit down and mind your own business. Did you not read the inscription over the door? Everybody is not obliged to
live in the same way."
"Do not be so angry, my good man," replied the Calender; "we should be very sorry to displease you;" so the quarrel was
smoothed over, and supper began in good earnest. When the Calenders had satisfied their hunger, they offered to play to their
hostesses, if there were any instruments in the house. The ladies were delighted at the idea, and Sadie went to see what she
could find, returning in a few moments laden with two different kinds of flutes and a tambourine. Each Calender took the one
he preferred, and began to play a well-known air, while the ladies sang the words of the song. These words were the gayest and
liveliest possible, and every now and then the singers had to stop to indulge the laughter which almost choked them. In the
midst of all their noise, a knock was heard at the door.
Now early that evening the Caliph secretly left the palace, accompanied by his grand-vizir, Giafar, and Mesrour, chief of
the eunuchs, all three wearing the dresses of merchants. Passing down the street, the Caliph had been attracted by the music
of instruments and the sound of laughter, and had ordered his vizir to go and knock at the door of the house, as he wished to
enter. The vizir replied that the ladies who lived there seemed to be entertaining their friends, and he thought his master
would do well not to intrude on them; but the Caliph had taken it into his head to see for himself, and insisted on being
The knock was answered by Sadie, with a taper in her hand, and the vizir, who was surprised at her beauty, bowed low
before her, and said respectfully, "Madam, we are three merchants who have lately arrived from Moussoul, and, owing to a
misadventure which befel us this very night, only reached our inn to find that the doors were closed to us till to-morrow
morning. Not knowing what to do, we wandered in the streets till we happened to pass your house, when, seeing lights and
hearing the sound of voices, we resolved to ask you to give us shelter till the dawn. If you will grant us this favour, we
will, with your permission, do all in our power to help you spend the time pleasantly."
Sadie answered the merchant that she must first consult her sisters; and after having talked over the matter with them,
she returned to tell him that he and his two friends would be welcome to join their company. They entered and bowed politely
to the ladies and their guests. Then Zobeida, as the mistress, came forward and said gravely, "You are welcome here, but I
hope you will allow me to beg one thing of you--have as many eyes as you like, but no tongues; and ask no questions about
anything you see, however strange it may appear to you."
"Madam," returned the vizir, "you shall be obeyed. We have quite enough to please and interest us without troubling
ourselves about that with which we have no concern." Then they all sat down, and drank to the health of the new comers.
While the vizir, Giafar, was talking to the ladies the Caliph was occupied in wondering who they could be, and why the
three Calenders had each lost his right eye. He was burning to inquire the reason of it all, but was silenced by Zobeida's
request, so he tried to rouse himself and to take his part in the conversation, which was very lively, the subject of
discussion being the many different sorts of pleasures that there were in the world. After some time the Calenders got up and
performed some curious dances, which delighted the rest of the company.
When they had finished Zobeida rose from her seat, and, taking Amina by the hand, she said to her, "My sister, our friends
will excuse us if we seem to forget their presence and fulfil our nightly task." Amina understood her sister's meaning, and
collecting the dishes, glasses, and musical instruments, she carried them away, while Sadie swept the hall and put everything
in order. Having done this she begged the Calenders to sit on a sofa on one side of the room, and the Caliph and his friends
to place themselves opposite. As to the porter, she requested him to come and help her and her sister.
Shortly after Amina entered carrying a seat, which she put down in the middle of the empty space. She next went over to
the door of a closet and signed to the porter to follow her. He did so, and soon reappeared leading two black dogs by a
chain, which he brought into the centre of the hall. Zobeida then got up from her seat between the Calenders and the Caliph
and walked slowly across to where the porter stood with the dogs. "We must do our duty," she said with a deep sigh, pushing
back her sleeves, and, taking a whip from Sadie, she said to the man, "Take one of those dogs to my sister Amina and give me
The porter did as he was bid, but as he led the dog to Zobeida it uttered piercing howls, and gazed up at her with looks
of entreaty. But Zobeida took no notice, and whipped the dog till she was out of breath. She then took the chain from the
porter, and, raising the dog on its hind legs, they looked into each other's eyes sorrowfully till tears began to fall from
both. Then Zobeida took her handkerchief and wiped the dog's eyes tenderly, after which she kissed it, then, putting the
chain into the porter's hand she said, "Take it back to the closet and bring me the other."
The same ceremony was gone through with the second dog, and all the while the whole company looked on with astonishment.
The Caliph in particular could hardly contain himself, and made signs to the vizir to ask what it all meant. But the vizir
pretended not to see, and turned his head away.
Zobeida remained for some time in the middle of the room, till at last Sadie went up to her and begged her to sit down, as
she also had her part to play. At these words Amina fetched a lute from a case of yellow satin and gave it to Sadie, who sang
several songs to its accompaniment. When she was tired she said to Amina, "My sister, I can do no more; come, I pray you, and
take my place."
Amina struck a few chords and then broke into a song, which she sang with so much ardour that she was quite overcome, and
sank gasping on a pile of cushions, tearing open her dress as she did so to give herself some air. To the amazement of all
present, her neck, instead of being as smooth and white as her face, was a mass of scars.
The Calenders and the Caliph looked at each other, and whispered together, unheard by Zobeida and Sadie, who were tending
their fainting sister.
"What does it all mean? ' asked the Caliph.
"We know no more than you," said the Calender to whom he had spoken.
"What! You do not belong to the house?"
"My lord," answered all the Calenders together, "we came here for the first time an hour before you."
They then turned to the porter to see if he could explain the mystery, but the porter was no wiser than they were
themselves. At length the Caliph could contain his curiosity no longer, and declared that he would compel the ladies to tell
them the meaning of their strange conduct. The vizir, foreseeing what would happen, implored him to remember the condition
their hostesses had imposed, and added in a whisper that if his Highness would only wait till morning he could as Caliph
summon the ladies to appear before him. But the Caliph, who was not accustomed to be contradicted, rejected this advice, and
it was resolved after a little more talking that the question should be put by the porter. Suddenly Zobeida turned round, and
seeing their excitement she said, "What is the matter-- what are you all discussing so earnestly?"
"Madam," answered the porter, "these gentlemen entreat you to explain to them why you should first whip the dogs and then
cry over them, and also how it happens that the fainting lady is covered with scars. They have requested me, Madam, to be
"Is it true, gentlemen," asked Zobeida, drawing herself up, "that you have charged this man to put me that question?"
"It is," they all replied, except Giafar, who was silent.
"Is this," continued Zobeida, growing more angry every moment, "is this the return you make for the hospitality I have
shown you? Have you forgotten the one condition on which you were allowed to enter the house? Come quickly," she added,
clapping her hands three times, and the words were hardly uttered when seven black slaves, each armed with a sabre, burst in
and stood over the seven men, throwing them on the ground, and preparing themselves, on a sign from their mistress, to cut off
The seven culprits all thought their last hour had come, and the Caliph repented bitterly that he had not taken the
vizir's advice. But they made up their minds to die bravely, all except the porter, who loudly inquired of Zobeida why he was
to suffer for other people's faults, and declared that these misfortunes would never have happened if it had not been for the
Calenders, who always brought ill-luck. He ended by imploring Zobeida not to confound the innocent with the guilty and to
spare his life.
In spite of her anger, there was something so comic in the groans of the porter that Zobeida could not refrain from
laughing. But putting him aside she addressed the others a second time, saying, "Answer me; who are you? Unless you tell me
truly you have not another moment to live. I can hardly think you are men of any position, whatever country you belong to.
If you were, you would have had more consideration for us."
The Caliph, who was naturally very impatient, suffered far more than either of the others at feeling that his life was at
the mercy of a justly offended lady, but when he heard her question he began to breathe more freely, for he was convinced that
she had only to learn his name and rank for all danger to be over. So he whispered hastily to the vizir, who was next to him,
to reveal their secret. But the vizir, wiser than his master, wished to conceal from the public the affront they had
received, and merely answered, "After all, we have only got what we deserved."
Meanwhile Zobeida had turned to the three Calenders and inquired if, as they were all blind, they were brothers.
"No, madam," replied one, "we are no blood relations at all, only brothers by our mode of life."
"And you," she asked, addressing another, "were you born blind of one eye?"
"No, madam," returned he, "I became blind through a most surprising adventure, such as probably has never happened to
anybody. After that I shaved my head and eyebrows and put on the dress in which you see me now."
Zobeida put the same question to the other two Calenders, and received the same answer.
"But," added the third, "it may interest you, madam, to know that we are not men of low birth, but are all three sons of
kings, and of kings, too, whom the world holds in high esteem."
At these words Zobeida's anger cooled down, and she turned to her slaves and said, "You can give them a little more
liberty, but do not leave the hall. Those that will tell us their histories and their reasons for coming here shall be
allowed to leave unhurt; those who refuse--" And she paused, but in a moment the porter, who understood that he had only to
relate his story to set himself free from this terrible danger, immediately broke in,
"Madam, you know already how I came here, and what I have to say will soon be told. Your sister found me this morning in
the place where I always stand waiting to be hired. She bade me follow her to various shops, and when my basket was quite
full we returned to this house, when you had the goodness to permit me to remain, for which I shall be eternally grateful.
That is my story."
He looked anxiously to Zobeida, who nodded her head and said, "You can go; and take care we never meet again."
"Oh, madam," cried the porter, "let me stay yet a little while. It is not just that the others should have heard my story
and that I should not hear theirs," and without waiting for permission he seated himself on the end of the sofa occupied by
the ladies, whilst the rest crouched on the carpet, and the slaves stood against the wall.
Then one of the Calenders, addressing himself to Zobeida as the principal lady, began his story.
The Story of the First Calender, Son of a King
In order, madam, to explain how I came to lose my right eye, and to wear the dress of a Calender, you must first know that
I am the son of a king. My father's only brother reigned over the neighbouring country, and had two children, a daughter and
a son, who were of the same age as myself.
As I grew up, and was allowed more liberty, I went every year to pay a visit to my uncle's court, and usually stayed there
about two months. In this way my cousin and I became very intimate, and were much attached to each other. The very last time
I saw him he seemed more delighted to see me than ever, and gave a great feast in my honour. When we had finished eating, he
said to me, "My cousin, you would never guess what I have been doing since your last visit to us! Directly after your
departure I set a number of men to work on a building after my own design. It is now completed, and ready to be lived in. I
should like to show it to you, but you must first swear two things: to be faithful to me, and to keep my secret."
Of course I did not dream of refusing him anything he asked, and gave the promise without the least hesitation. He then
bade me wait an instant, and vanished, returning in a few moments with a richly dressed lady of great beauty, but as he did
not tell me her name, I thought it was better not to inquire. We all three sat down to table and amused ourselves with
talking of all sorts of indifferent things, and with drinking each other's health. Suddenly the prince said to me, "Cousin,
we have no time to lose; be so kind as to conduct this lady to a certain spot, where you will find a dome-like tomb, newly
built. You cannot mistake it. Go in, both of you, and wait till I come. I shall not be long."
As I had promised I prepared to do as I was told, and giving my hand to the lady, I escorted her, by the light of the
moon, to the place of which the prince had spoken. We had barely reached it when he joined us himself, carrying a small
vessel of water, a pickaxe, and a little bag containing plaster.
With the pickaxe he at once began to destroy the empty sepulchre in the middle of the tomb. One by one he took the stones
and piled them up in a corner. When he had knocked down the whole sepulchre he proceeded to dig at the earth, and beneath
where the sepulchre had been I saw a trap-door. He raised the door and I caught sight of the top of a spiral staircase; then
he said, turning to the lady, "Madam, this is the way that will lead you down to the spot which I told you of."
The lady did not answer, but silently descended the staircase, the prince following her. At the top, however, he looked
at me. "My cousin," he exclaimed, "I do not know how to thank you for your kindness. Farewell."
"What do you mean?" I cried. "I don't understand."
"No matter," he replied, "go back by the path that you came."
He would say no more, and, greatly puzzled, I returned to my room in the palace and went to bed. When I woke, and
considered my adventure, I thought that I must have been dreaming, and sent a servant to ask if the prince was dressed and
could see me. But on hearing that he had not slept at home I was much alarmed, and hastened to the cemetery, where, unluckily,
the tombs were all so alike that I could not discover which was the one I was in search of, though I spent four days in
looking for it.
You must know that all this time the king, my uncle, was absent on a hunting expedition, and as no one knew when he would
be back, I at last decided to return home, leaving the ministers to make my excuses. I longed to tell them what had become of
the prince, about whose fate they felt the most dreadful anxiety, but the oath I had sworn kept me silent.
On my arrival at my father's capital, I was astonished to find a large detachment of guards drawn up before the gate of
the palace; they surrounded me directly I entered. I asked the officers in command the reason of this strange behaviour, and
was horrified to learn that the army had mutinied and put to death the king, my father, and had placed the grand-vizir on the
throne. Further, that by his orders I was placed under arrest.
Now this rebel vizir had hated me from my boy-hood, because once, when shooting at a bird with a bow, I had shot out his
eye by accident. Of course I not only sent a servant at once to offer him my regrets and apologies, but I made them in person.
It was all of no use. He cherished an undying hatred towards me, and lost no occasion of showing it. Having once got me in
his power I felt he could show no mercy, and I was right. Mad with triumph and fury he came to me in my prison and tore out
my right eye. That is how I lost it.
My persecutor, however, did not stop here. He shut me up in a large case and ordered his executioner to carry me into a
desert place, to cut off my head, and then to abandon my body to the birds of prey. The case, with me inside it, was
accordingly placed on a horse, and the executioner, accompanied by another man, rode into the country until they found a spot
suitable for the purpose. But their hearts were not so hard as they seemed, and my tears and prayers made them waver.
"Forsake the kingdom instantly," said the executioner at last, "and take care never to come back, for you will not only
lose your head, but make us lose ours." I thanked him gratefully, and tried to console myself for the loss of my eye by
thinking of the other misfortunes I had escaped.
After all I had gone through, and my fear of being recognised by some enemy, I could only travel very slowly and
cautiously, generally resting in some out-of-the-way place by day, and walking as far as I was able by night, but at length I
arrived in the kingdom of my uncle, of whose protection I was sure.
I found him in great trouble about the disappearance of his son, who had, he said, vanished without leaving a trace; but
his own grief did not prevent him sharing mine. We mingled our tears, for the loss of one was the loss of the other, and then
I made up my mind that it was my duty to break the solemn oath I had sworn to the prince. I therefore lost no time in telling
my uncle everything I knew, and I observed that even before I had ended his sorrow appeared to be lightened a little.
"My dear nephew," he said, "your story gives me some hope. I was aware that my son was building a tomb, and I think I can
find the spot. But as he wished to keep the matter secret, let us go alone and seek the place ourselves."
He then bade me disguise myself, and we both slipped out of a garden door which opened on to the cemetery. It did not
take long for us to arrive at the scene of the prince's disappearance, or to discover the tomb I had sought so vainly before.
We entered it, and found the trap-door which led to the staircase, but we had great difficulty in raising it, because the
prince had fastened it down underneath with the plaster he had brought with him.
My uncle went first, and I followed him. When we reached the bottom of the stairs we stepped into a sort of ante-room,
filled with such a dense smoke that it was hardly possible to see anything. However, we passed through the smoke into a large
chamber, which at first seemed quite empty. The room was brilliantly lighted, and in another moment we perceived a sort of
platform at one end, on which were the bodies of the prince and a lady, both half-burned, as if they had been dragged out of a
fire before it had quite consumed them.
This horrible sight turned me faint, but, to my surprise, my uncle did not show so much surprise as anger.
"I knew," he said, "that my son was tenderly attached to this lady, whom it was impossible he should ever marry. I tried
to turn his thoughts, and presented to him the most beautiful princesses, but he cared for none of them, and, as you see, they
have now been united by a horrible death in an underground tomb." But, as he spoke, his anger melted into tears, and again I
wept with him.
When he recovered himself he drew me to him. "My dear nephew," he said, embracing me, "you have come to me to take his
place, and I will do my best to forget that I ever had a son who could act in so wicked a manner." Then he turned and went up
We reached the palace without anyone having noticed our absence, when, shortly after, a clashing of drums, and cymbals,
and the blare of trumpets burst upon our astonished ears. At the same time a thick cloud of dust on the horizon told of the
approach of a great army. My heart sank when I perceived that the commander was the vizir who had dethroned my father, and was
come to seize the kingdom of my uncle.
The capital was utterly unprepared to stand a siege, and seeing that resistance was useless, at once opened its gates. My
uncle fought hard for his life, but was soon overpowered, and when he fell I managed to escape through a secret passage, and
took refuge with an officer whom I knew I could trust.
Persecuted by ill-fortune, and stricken with grief, there seemed to be only one means of safety left to me. I shaved my
beard and my eyebrows, and put on the dress of a calender, in which it was easy for me to travel without being known. I
avoided the towns till I reached the kingdom of the famous and powerful Caliph, Haroun-al-Raschid, when I had no further
reason to fear my enemies. It was my intention to come to Bagdad and to throw myself at the feet of his Highness, who would, I
felt certain, be touched by my sad story, and would grant me, besides, his help and protection.
After a journey which lasted some months I arrived at length at the gates of this city. It was sunset, and I paused for a
little to look about me, and to decide which way to turn my steps. I was still debating on this subject when I was joined by
this other calender, who stopped to greet me. "You, like me, appear to be a stranger," I said. He replied that I was right,
and before he could say more the third calender came up. He, also, was newly arrived in Bagdad, and being brothers in
misfortune, we resolved to cast in our lots together, and to share whatever fate might have in store.
By this time it had grown late, and we did not know where to spend the night. But our lucky star having guided us to this
door, we took the liberty of knocking and of asking for shelter, which was given to us at once with the best grace in the
This, madam, is my story.
"I am satisfied," replied Zobeida; "you can go when you like."
The calender, however, begged leave to stay and to hear the histories of his two friends and of the three other persons of
the company, which he was allowed to do.
The Story of the Second Calendar, Son of a King
"Madam," said the young man, addressing Zobeida, "if you wish to know how I lost my right eye, I shall have to tell you
the story of my whole life."
I was scarcely more than a baby, when the king my father, finding me unusually quick and clever for my age, turned his
thoughts to my education. I was taught first to read and write, and then to learn the Koran, which is the basis of our holy
religion, and the better to understand it, I read with my tutors the ablest commentators on its teaching, and committed to
memory all the traditions respecting the Prophet, which have been gathered from the mouth of those who were his friends. I
also learnt history, and was instructed in poetry, versification, geography, chronology, and in all the outdoor exercises in
which every prince should excel. But what I liked best of all was writing Arabic characters, and in this I soon surpassed my
masters, and gained a reputation in this branch of knowledge that reached as far as India itself.
Now the Sultan of the Indies, curious to see a young prince with such strange tastes, sent an ambassador to my father,
laden with rich presents, and a warm invitation to visit his court. My father, who was deeply anxious to secure the friendship
of so powerful a monarch, and held besides that a little travel would greatly improve my manners and open my mind, accepted
gladly, and in a short time I had set out for India with the ambassador, attended only by a small suite on account of the
length of the journey, and the badness of the roads. However, as was my duty, I took with me ten camels, laden with rich
presents for the Sultan.
We had been travelling for about a month, when one day we saw a cloud of dust moving swiftly towards us; and as soon as it
came near, we found that the dust concealed a band of fifty robbers. Our men barely numbered half, and as we were also
hampered by the camels, there was no use in fighting, so we tried to overawe them by informing them who we were, and whither
we were going. The robbers, however, only laughed, and declared that was none of their business, and, without more words,
attacked us brutally. I defended myself to the last, wounded though I was, but at length, seeing that resistance was hopeless,
and that the ambassador and all our followers were made prisoners, I put spurs to my horse and rode away as fast as I could,
till the poor beast fell dead from a wound in his side. I managed to jump off without any injury, and looked about to see if
I was pursued. But for the moment I was safe, for, as I imagined, the robbers were all engaged in quarrelling over their
I found myself in a country that was quite new to me, and dared not return to the main road lest I should again fall into
the hands of the robbers. Luckily my wound was only a slight one, and after binding it up as well as I could, I walked on for
the rest of the day, till I reached a cave at the foot of a mountain, where I passed the night in peace, making my supper off
some fruits I had gathered on the way.
I wandered about for a whole month without knowing where I was going, till at length I found myself on the outskirts of a
beautiful city, watered by winding streams, which enjoyed an eternal spring. My delight at the prospect of mixing once more
with human beings was somewhat damped at the thought of the miserable object I must seem. My face and hands had been burned
nearly black; my clothes were all in rags, and my shoes were in such a state that I had been forced to abandon them
I entered the town, and stopped at a tailor s shop to inquire where I was. The man saw I was better than my condition,
and begged me to sit down, and in return I told him my whole story. The tailor listened with attention, but his reply, instead
of giving me consolation, only increased my trouble.
"Beware," he said, "of telling any one what you have told me, for the prince who governs the kingdom is your father's
greatest enemy, and he will be rejoiced to find you in his power."
I thanked the tailor for his counsel, and said I would do whatever he advised; then, being very hungry, I gladly ate of
the food he put before me, and accepted his offer of a lodging in his house.
In a few days I had quite recovered from the hardships I had undergone, and then the tailor, knowing that it was the
custom for the princes of our religion to learn a trade or profession so as to provide for themselves in times of ill-fortune,
inquired if there was anything I could do for my living. I replied that I had been educated as a grammarian and a poet, but
that my great gift was writing.
"All that is of no use here," said the tailor. "Take my advice, put on a short coat, and as you seem hardy and strong, go
into the woods and cut firewood, which you will sell in the streets. By this means you will earn your living, and be able to
wait till better times come. The hatchet and the cord shall be my present."
This counsel was very distasteful to me, but I thought I could not do otherwise than adopt it. So the next morning I set
out with a company of poor wood-cutters, to whom the tailor had introduced me. Even on the first day I cut enough wood to sell
for a tolerable sum, and very soon I became more expert, and had made enough money to repay the tailor all he had lent me.
I had been a wood-cutter for more than a year, when one day I wandered further into the forest than I had ever done
before, and reached a delicious green glade, where I began to cut wood. I was hacking at the root of a tree, when I beheld an
iron ring fastened to a trapdoor of the same metal. I soon cleared away the earth, and pulling up the door, found a
staircase, which I hastily made up my mind to go down, carrying my hatchet with me by way of protection. When I reached the
bottom I discovered that I was in a huge palace, as brilliantly lighted as any palace above ground that I had ever seen, with
a long gallery supported by pillars of jasper, ornamented with capitals of gold. Down this gallery a lady came to meet me, of
such beauty that I forgot everything else, and thought only of her.
To save her all the trouble possible, I hastened towards her, and bowed low.
"Who are you? Who are you?" she said. "A man or a genius?"
"A man, madam," I replied; "I have nothing to do with genii."
"By what accident do you come here?" she asked again with a sigh. "I have been in this place now for five and twenty
years, and you are the first man who has visited me."
Emboldened by her beauty and gentleness, I ventured to reply, "Before, madam, I answer your question, allow me to say how
grateful I am for this meeting, which is not only a consolation to me in my own heavy sorrow, but may perhaps enable me to
render your lot happier," and then I told her who I was, and how I had come there.
"Alas, prince," she said, with a deeper sigh than before, "you have guessed rightly in supposing me an unwilling prisoner
in this gorgeous place. I am the daughter of the king of the Ebony Isle, of whose fame you surely must have heard. At my
father's desire I was married to a prince who was my own cousin; but on my very wedding day, I was snatched up by a genius,
and brought here in a faint. For a long while I did nothing but weep, and would not suffer the genius to come near me; but
time teaches us submission, and I have now got accustomed to his presence, and if clothes and jewels could content me, I have
them in plenty. Every tenth day, for five and twenty years, I have received a visit from him, but in case I should need his
help at any other time, I have only to touch a talisman that stands at the entrance of my chamber. It wants still five days to
his next visit, and I hope that during that time you will do me the honour to be my guest."
I was too much dazzled by her beauty to dream of refusing her offer, and accordingly the princess had me conducted to the
bath, and a rich dress befitting my rank was provided for me. Then a feast of the most delicate dishes was served in a room
hung with embroidered Indian fabrics.
Next day, when we were at dinner, I could maintain my patience no longer, and implored the princess to break her bonds,
and return with me to the world which was lighted by the sun.
"What you ask is impossible," she answered; "but stay here with me instead, and we can be happy, and all you will have to
do is to betake yourself to the forest every tenth day, when I am expecting my master the genius. He is very jealous, as you
know, and will not suffer a man to come near me."
"Princess," I replied, "I see it is only fear of the genius that makes you act like this. For myself, I dread him so
little that I mean to break his talisman in pieces! Awful though you think him, he shall feel the weight of my arm, and I
herewith take a solemn vow to stamp out the whole race."
The princess, who realized the consequences of such audacity, entreated me not to touch the talisman. "If you do, it will
be the ruin of both of us," said she; "I know genii much better than you." But the wine I had drunk had confused my brain; I
gave one kick to the talisman, and it fell into a thousand pieces.
Hardly had my foot touched the talisman when the air became as dark as night, a fearful noise was heard, and the palace
shook to its very foundations. In an instant I was sobered, and understood what I had done. "Princess!" I cried, "what is
"Alas!" she exclaimed, forgetting all her own terrors in anxiety for me, "fly, or you are lost."
I followed her advice and dashed up the staircase, leaving my hatchet behind me. But I was too late. The palace opened
and the genius appeared, who, turning angrily to the princess, asked indignantly,
"What is the matter, that you have sent for me like this?"
"A pain in my heart," she replied hastily, "obliged me to seek the aid of this little bottle. Feeling faint, I slipped
and fell against the talisman, which broke. That is really all."
"You are an impudent liar!" cried the genius. "How did this hatchet and those shoes get here?"
"I never saw them before," she answered, "and you came in such a hurry that you may have picked them up on the road
without knowing it." To this the genius only replied by insults and blows. I could hear the shrieks and groans of the
princess, and having by this time taken off my rich garments and put on those in which I had arrived the previous day, I
lifted the trap, found myself once more in the forest, and returned to my friend the tailor, with a light load of wood and a
heart full of shame and sorrow.
The tailor, who had been uneasy at my long absence, was, delighted to see me; but I kept silence about my adventure, and
as soon as possible retired to my room to lament in secret over my folly. While I was thus indulging my grief my host entered,
and said, "There is an old man downstairs who has brought your hatchet and slippers, which he picked up on the road, and now
restores to you, as he found out from one of your comrades where you lived. You had better come down and speak to him
yourself." At this speech I changed colour, and my legs trembled under me. The tailor noticed my confusion, and was just
going to inquire the reason when the door of the room opened, and the old man appeared, carrying with him my hatchet and
"I am a genius," he said, "the son of the daughter of Eblis, prince of the genii. Is not this hatchet yours, and these
shoes?" Without waiting for an answer--which, indeed, I could hardly have given him, so great was my fright--he seized hold of
me, and darted up into the air with the quickness of lightning, and then, with equal swiftness, dropped down towards the
earth. When he touched the ground, he rapped it with his foot; it opened, and we found ourselves in the enchanted palace, in
the presence of the beautiful princess of the Ebony Isle. But how different she looked from what she was when I had last seen
her, for she was lying stretched on the ground covered with blood, and weeping bitterly.
"Traitress!" cried the genius, "is not this man your lover?"
She lifted up her eyes slowly, and looked sadly at me. "I never saw him before," she answered slowly. "I do not know who
"What!" exclaimed the genius, "you owe all your sufferings to him, and yet you dare to say he is a stranger to you!"
"But if he really is a stranger to me," she replied, "why should I tell a lie and cause his death?"
"Very well," said the genius, drawing his sword, "take this, and cut off his head."
"Alas," answered the princess, "I am too weak even to hold the sabre. And supposing that I had the strength, why should I
put an innocent man to death?"
"You condemn yourself by your refusal," said the genius; then turning to me, he added, "and you, do you not know her?"
"How should I?" I replied, resolved to imitate the princess in her fidelity. "How should I, when I never saw her
"Cut her head off," then, "if she is a stranger to you, and I shall believe you are speaking the truth, and will set you
"Certainly," I answered, taking the sabre in my hands, and making a sign to the princess to fear nothing, as it was my own
life that I was about to sacrifice, and not hers. But the look of gratitude she gave me shook my courage, and I flung the
sabre to the earth.
"I should not deserve to live," I said to the genius, "if I were such a coward as to slay a lady who is not only unknown
to me, but who is at this moment half dead herself. Do with me as you will-- I am in your power--but I refuse to obey your
"I see," said the genius, "that you have both made up your minds to brave me, but I will give you a sample of what you may
expect." So saying, with one sweep of his sabre he cut off a hand of the princess, who was just able to lift the other to wave
me an eternal farewell. Then I lost consciousness for several minutes.
When I came to myself I implored the genius to keep me no longer in this state of suspense, but to lose no time in putting
an end to my sufferings. The genius, however, paid no attention to my prayers, but said sternly, "That is the way in which a
genius treats the woman who has betrayed him. If I chose, I could kill you also; but I will be merciful, and content myself
with changing you into a dog, an ass, a lion, or a bird--whichever you prefer."
I caught eagerly at these words, as giving me a faint hope of softening his wrath. "O genius!" I cried, "as you wish to
spare my life, be generous, and spare it altogether. Grant my prayer, and pardon my crime, as the best man in the whole world
forgave his neighbour who was eaten up with envy of him." Contrary to my hopes, the genius seemed interested in my words, and
said he would like to hear the story of the two neighbours; and as I think, madam, it may please you, I will tell it to you
The Story of the Envious Man and of Him Who Was Envied
In a town of moderate size, two men lived in neighbouring houses; but they had not been there very long before one man
took such a hatred of the other, and envied him so bitterly, that the poor man determined to find another home, hoping that
when they no longer met every day his enemy would forget all about him. So he sold his house and the little furniture it
contained, and moved into the capital of the country, which was luckily at no great distance. About half a mile from this city
he bought a nice little place, with a large garden and a fair-sized court, in the centre of which stood an old well.
In order to live a quieter life, the good man put on the robe of a dervish, and divided his house into a quantity of small
cells, where he soon established a number of other dervishes. The fame of his virtue gradually spread abroad, and many people,
including several of the highest quality, came to visit him and ask his prayers.
Of course it was not long before his reputation reached the ears of the man who envied him, and this wicked wretch
resolved never to rest till he had in some way worked ill to the dervish whom he hated. So he left his house and his business
to look after themselves, and betook himself to the new dervish monastery, where he was welcomed by the founder with all the
warmth imaginable. The excuse he gave for his appearance was that he had come to consult the chief of the dervishes on a
private matter of great importance. "What I have to say must not be overheard," he whispered; "command, I beg of you, that
your dervishes retire into their cells, as night is approaching, and meet me in the court."
The dervish did as he was asked without delay, and directly they were alone together the envious man began to tell a long
story, edging, as they walked to and fro, always nearer to the well, and when they were quite close, he seized the dervish and
dropped him in. He then ran off triumphantly, without having been seen by anyone, and congratulating himself that the object
of his hatred was dead, and would trouble him no more.
But in this he was mistaken! The old well had long been inhabited (unknown to mere human beings) by a set of fairies and
genii, who caught the dervish as he fell, so that he received no hurt. The dervish himself could see nothing, but he took for
granted that something strange had happened, or he must certainly have been dashed against the side of the well and been
killed. He lay quite still, and in a moment he heard a voice saying, "Can you guess whom this man is that we have saved from
"No," replied several other voices.
And the first speaker answered, "I will tell you. This man, from pure goodness of heart, forsook the town where he lived
and came to dwell here, in the hope of curing one of his neighbours of the envy he felt towards him. But his character soon
won him the esteem of all, and the envious man's hatred grew, till he came here with the deliberate intention of causing his
death. And this he would have done, without our help, the very day before the Sultan has arranged to visit this holy dervish,
and to entreat his prayers for the princess, his daughter."
"But what is the matter with the princess that she needs the dervish's prayers?" asked another voice.
"She has fallen into the power of the genius Maimoum, the son of Dimdim," replied the first voice. "But it would be quite
simple for this holy chief of the dervishes to cure her if he only knew! In his convent there is a black cat which has a tiny
white tip to its tail. Now to cure the princess the dervish must pull out seven of these white hairs, burn three, and with
their smoke perfume the head of the princess. This will deliver her so completely that Maimoum, the son of Dimdim, will never
dare to approach her again."
The fairies and genii ceased talking, but the dervish did not forget a word of all they had said; and when morning came he
perceived a place in the side of the well which was broken, and where he could easily climb out.
The dervishes, who could not imagine what had become of him, were enchanted at his reappearance. He told them of the
attempt on his life made by his guest of the previous day, and then retired into his cell. He was soon joined here by the
black cat of which the voice had spoken, who came as usual to say good-morning to his master. He took him on his knee and
seized the opportunity to pull seven white hairs out of his tail, and put them on one side till they were needed.
The sun had not long risen before the Sultan, who was anxious to leave nothing undone that might deliver the princess,
arrived with a large suite at the gate of the monastery, and was received by the dervishes with profound respect. The Sultan
lost no time in declaring the object of his visit, and leading the chief of the dervishes aside, he said to him, "Noble
scheik, you have guessed perhaps what I have come to ask you?"
"Yes, sire," answered the dervish; "if I am not mistaken, it is the illness of the princess which has procured me this
"You are right," returned the Sultan, "and you will give me fresh life if you can by your prayers deliver my daughter from
the strange malady that has taken possession of her."
"Let your highness command her to come here, and I will see what I can do."
The Sultan, full of hope, sent orders at once that the princess was to set out as soon as possible, accompanied by her
usual staff of attendants. When she arrived, she was so thickly veiled that the dervish could not see her face, but he
desired a brazier to be held over her head, and laid the seven hairs on the burning coals. The instant they were consumed,
terrific cries were heard, but no one could tell from whom they proceeded. Only the dervish guessed that they were uttered by
Maimoum the son of Dimdim, who felt the princess escaping him.
All this time she had seemed unconscious of what she was doing, but now she raised her hand to her veil and uncovered her
face. "Where am I?" she said in a bewildered manner; "and how did I get here?"
The Sultan was so delighted to hear these words that he not only embraced his daughter, but kissed the hand of the
dervish. Then, turning to his attendants who stood round, he said to them, "What reward shall I give to the man who has
restored me my daughter?"
They all replied with one accord that he deserved the hand of the princess.
"That is my own opinion," said he, "and from this moment I declare him to be my son-in-law."
Shortly after these events, the grand-vizir died, and his post was given to the dervish. But he did not hold it for long,
for the Sultan fell a victim to an attack of illness, and as he had no sons, the soldiers and priests declared the dervish
heir to the throne, to the great joy of all the people.
One day, when the dervish, who had now become Sultan, was making a royal progress with his court, he perceived the envious
man standing in the crowd. He made a sign to one of his vizirs, and whispered in his ear, "Fetch me that man who is standing
out there, but take great care not to frighten him." The vizir obeyed, and when the envious man was brought before the
Sultan, the monarch said to him, "My friend, I am delighted to see you again." Then turning to an officer, he added, "Give
him a thousand pieces of gold out of my treasury, and twenty waggon-loads of merchandise out of my private stores, and let an
escort of soldiers accompany him home." He then took leave of the envious man, and went on his way.
Now when I had ended my story, I proceeded to show the genius how to apply it to himself. "O genius," I said, "you see
that this Sultan was not content with merely forgiving the envious man for the attempt on his life; he heaped rewards and
riches upon him."
But the genius had made up his mind, and could not be softened. "Do not imagine that you are going to escape so easily,"
he said. "All I can do is to give you bare life; you will have to learn what happens to people who interfere with me."
As he spoke he seized me violently by the arm; the roof of the palace opened to make way for us, and we mounted up so high
into the air that the earth looked like a little cloud. Then, as before, he came down with the swiftness of lightning, and we
touched the ground on a mountain top.
Then he stooped and gathered a handful of earth, and murmured some words over it, after which he threw the earth in my
face, saying as he did so, "Quit the form of a man, and assume that of a monkey." This done, he vanished, and I was in the
likeness of an ape, and in a country I had never seen before.
However there was no use in stopping where I was, so I came down the mountain and found myself in a flat plain which was
bounded by the sea. I travelled towards it, and was pleased to see a vessel moored about half a mile from shore. There were
no waves, so I broke off the branch of a tree, and dragging it down to the waters edge, sat across it, while, using two sticks
for oars, I rowed myself towards the ship.
The deck was full of people, who watched my progress with interest, but when I seized a rope and swung myself on board, I
found that I had only escaped death at the hands of the genius to perish by those of the sailors, lest I should bring ill-luck
to the vessel and the merchants. "Throw him into the sea!" cried one. "Knock him on the head with a hammer," exclaimed
another. "Let me shoot him with an arrow," said a third; and certainly somebody would have had his way if I had not flung
myself at the captain's feet and grasped tight hold of his dress. He appeared touched by my action and patted my head, and
declared that he would take me under his protection, and that no one should do me any harm.
At the end of about fifty days we cast anchor before a large town, and the ship was immediately surrounded by a multitude
of small boats filled with people, who had come either to meet their friends or from simple curiosity. Among others, one boat
contained several officials, who asked to see the merchants on board, and informed them that they had been sent by the Sultan
in token of welcome, and to beg them each to write a few lines on a roll of paper. "In order to explain this strange request,"
continued the officers, "it is necessary that you should know that the grand-vizir, lately dead, was celebrated for his
beautiful handwriting, and the Sultan is anxious to find a similar talent in his successor. Hitherto the search has been a
failure, but his Highness has not yet given up hope."
One after another the merchants set down a few lines upon the roll, and when they had all finished, I came forward, and
snatched the paper from the man who held it. At first they all thought I was going to throw it into the sea, but they were
quieted when they saw I held it with great care, and great was their surprise when I made signs that I too wished to write
"Let him do it if he wants to," said the captain. "If he only makes a mess of the paper, you may be sure I will punish
him for it. But if, as I hope, he really can write, for he is the cleverest monkey I ever saw, I will adopt him as my son.
The one I lost had not nearly so much sense!"
No more was said, and I took the pen and wrote the six sorts of writing in use among the Arabs, and each sort contained an
original verse or couplet, in praise of the Sultan. And not only did my handwriting completely eclipse that of the merchants,
but it is hardly too much to say that none so beautiful had ever before been seen in that country. When I had ended the
officials took the roll and returned to the Sultan.
As soon as the monarch saw my writing he did not so much as look at the samples of the merchants, but desired his
officials to take the finest and most richly caparisoned horse in his stables, together with the most magnificent dress they
could procure, and to put it on the person who had written those lines, and bring him to court.
The officials began to laugh when they heard the Sultan's command, but as soon as they could speak they said, "Deign, your
highness, to excuse our mirth, but those lines were not written by a man but by a monkey."
"A monkey!" exclaimed the Sultan.
"Yes, sire," answered the officials. "They were written by a monkey in our presence."
"Then bring me the monkey," he replied, "as fast as you can."
The Sultan's officials returned to the ship and showed the royal order to the captain.
"He is the master," said the good man, and desired that I should be sent for.
Then they put on me the gorgeous robe and rowed me to land, where I was placed on the horse and led to the palace. Here
the Sultan was awaiting me in great state surrounded by his court.
All the way along the streets I had been the object of curiosity to a vast crowd, which had filled every doorway and every
window, and it was amidst their shouts and cheers that I was ushered into the presence of the Sultan.
I approached the throne on which he was seated and made him three low bows, then prostrated myself at his feet to the
surprise of everyone, who could not understand how it was possible that a monkey should be able to distinguish a Sultan from
other people, and to pay him the respect due to his rank. However, excepting the usual speech, I omitted none of the common
forms attending a royal audience.
When it was over the Sultan dismissed all the court, keeping with him only the chief of the eunuchs and a little slave.
He then passed into another room and ordered food to be brought, making signs to me to sit at table with him and eat. I rose
from my seat, kissed the ground, and took my place at the table, eating, as you may suppose, with care and in moderation.
Before the dishes were removed I made signs that writing materials, which stood in one corner of the room, should be laid
in front of me. I then took a peach and wrote on it some verses in praise of the Sultan, who was speechless with astonishment;
but when I did the same thing on a glass from which I had drunk he murmured to himself, "Why, a man who could do as much would
be cleverer than any other man, and this is only a monkey!"
Supper being over chessmen were brought, and the Sultan signed to me to know if I would play with him. I kissed the
ground and laid my hand on my head to show that I was ready to show myself worthy of the honour. He beat me the first game,
but I won the second and third, and seeing that this did not quite please I dashed off a verse by way of consolation.
The Sultan was so enchanted with all the talents of which I had given proof that he wished me to exhibit some of them to
other people. So turning to the chief of the eunuchs he said, "Go and beg my daughter, Queen of Beauty, to come here. I will
show her something she has never seen before."
The chief of the eunuchs bowed and left the room, ushering in a few moments later the princess, Queen of Beauty. Her face
was uncovered, but the moment she set foot in the room she threw her veil over her head. "Sire," she said to her father,
"what can you be thinking of to summon me like this into the presence of a man?"
"I do not understand you," replied the Sultan. "There is nobody here but the eunuch, who is your own servant, the little
slave, and myself, yet you cover yourself with your veil and reproach me for having sent for you, as if I had committed a
"Sire," answered the princess, "I am right and you are wrong. This monkey is really no monkey at all, but a young prince
who has been turned into a monkey by the wicked spells of a genius, son of the daughter of Eblis."
As will be imagined, these words took the Sultan by surprise, and he looked at me to see how I should take the statement
of the princess. As I was unable to speak, I placed my hand on my head to show that it was true.
"But how do you know this, my daughter?" asked he.
"Sire," replied Queen of Beauty, "the old lady who took care of me in my childhood was an accomplished magician, and she
taught me seventy rules of her art, by means of which I could, in the twinkling of an eye, transplant your capital into the
middle of the ocean. Her art likewise teaches me to recognise at first sight all persons who are enchanted, and tells me by
whom the spell was wrought."
"My daughter," said the Sultan, "I really had no idea you were so clever."
"Sire," replied the princess, "there are many out-of-the-way things it is as well to know, but one should never boast of
"Well," asked the Sultan, "can you tell me what must be done to disenchant the young prince?"
"Certainly; and I can do it."
"Then restore him to his former shape," cried the Sultan. "You could give me no greater pleasure, for I wish to make him
my grand-vizir, and to give him to you for your husband."
"As your Highness pleases," replied the princess.
Queen of Beauty rose and went to her chamber, from which she fetched a knife with some Hebrew words engraven on the blade.
She then desired the Sultan, the chief of the eunuchs, the little slave, and myself to descend into a secret court of the
palace, and placed us beneath a gallery which ran all round, she herself standing in the centre of the court. Here she traced
a large circle and in it wrote several words in Arab characters.
When the circle and the writing were finished she stood in the middle of it and repeated some verses from the Koran.
Slowly the air grew dark, and we felt as if the earth was about to crumble away, and our fright was by no means diminished at
seeing the genius, son of the daughter of Eblis, suddenly appear under the form of a colossal lion.
"Dog," cried the princess when she first caught sight of him, "you think to strike terror into me by daring to present
yourself before me in this hideous shape."
"And you," retorted the lion, "have not feared to break our treaty that engaged solemnly we should never interfere with
"Accursed genius!" exclaimed the princess, "it is you by whom that treaty was first broken."
"I will teach you how to give me so much trouble," said the lion, and opening his huge mouth he advanced to swallow her.
But the princess expected something of the sort and was on her guard. She bounded on one side, and seizing one of the hairs of
his mane repeated two or three words over it. In an instant it became a sword, and with a sharp blow she cut the lion's body
into two pieces. These pieces vanished no one knew where, and only the lion's head remained, which was at once changed into a
scorpion. Quick as thought the princess assumed the form of a serpent and gave battle to the scorpion, who, finding he was
getting the worst of it, turned himself into an eagle and took flight. But in a moment the serpent had become an eagle more
powerful still, who soared up in the air and after him, and then we lost sight of them both.
We all remained where we were quaking with anxiety, when the ground opened in front of us and a black and white cat leapt
out, its hair standing on end, and miauing frightfully. At its heels was a wolf, who had almost seized it, when the cat
changed itself into a worm, and, piercing the skin of a pomegranate which had tumbled from a tree, hid itself in the fruit.
The pomegranate swelled till it grew as large as a pumpkin, and raised itself on to the roof of the gallery, from which it
fell into the court and was broken into bits. While this was taking place the wolf, who had transformed himself into a cock,
began to swallow the seed of the pomegranate as fast as he could. When all were gone he flew towards us, flapping his wings
as if to ask if we saw any more, when suddenly his eye fell on one which lay on the bank of the little canal that flowed
through the court; he hastened towards it, but before he could touch it the seed rolled into the canal and became a fish. The
cock flung himself in after the fish and took the shape of a pike, and for two hours they chased each other up and down under
the water, uttering horrible cries, but we could see nothing. At length they rose from the water in their proper forms, but
darting such flames of fire from their mouths that we dreaded lest the palace should catch fire. Soon, however, we had much
greater cause for alarm, as the genius, having shaken off the princess, flew towards us. Our fate would have been sealed if
the princess, seeing our danger, had not attracted the attention of the genius to herself. As it was, the Sultan's beard was
singed and his face scorched, the chief of the eunuchs was burned to a cinder, while a spark deprived me of the sight of one
eye. Both I and the Sultan had given up all hope of a rescue, when there was a shout of "Victory, victory!" from the
princess, and the genius lay at her feet a great heap of ashes.
Exhausted though she was, the princess at once ordered the little slave, who alone was uninjured, to bring her a cup of
water, which she took in her hand. First repeating some magic words over it, she dashed it into my face saying, "If you are
only a monkey by enchantment, resume the form of the man you were before." In an instant I stood before her the same man I had
formerly been, though having lost the sight of one eye.
I was about to fall on my knees and thank the princess but she did not give me time. Turning to the Sultan, her father,
she said, "Sire, I have gained the battle, but it has cost me dear. The fire has penetrated to my heart, and I have only a
few moments to live. This would not have happened if I had only noticed the last pomegranate seed and eaten it like the rest.
It was the last struggle of the genius, and up to that time I was quite safe. But having let this chance slip I was forced to
resort to fire, and in spite of all his experience I showed the genius that I knew more than he did. He is dead and in ashes,
but my own death is approaching fast." "My daughter," cried the Sultan, "how sad is my condition! I am only surprised I am
alive at all! The eunuch is consumed by the flames, and the prince whom you have delivered has lost the sight of one eye." He
could say no more, for sobs choked his voice, and we all wept together.
Suddenly the princess shrieked, "I burn, I burn!" and death came to free her from her torments.
I have no words, madam, to tell you of my feelings at this terrible sight. I would rather have remained a monkey all my
life than let my benefactress perish in this shocking manner. As for the Sultan, he was quite inconsolable, and his subjects,
who had dearly loved the princess, shared his grief. For seven days the whole nation mourned, and then the ashes of the
princess were buried with great pomp, and a superb tomb was raised over her.
As soon as the Sultan recovered from the severe illness which had seized him after the death of the princess he sent for
me and plainly, though politely, informed me that my presence would always remind him of his loss, and he begged that I would
instantly quit his kingdom, and on pain of death never return to it. I was, of course, bound to obey, and not knowing what
was to become of me I shaved my beard and eyebrows and put on the dress of a calender. After wandering aimlessly through
several countries, I resolved to come to Bagdad and request an audience of the Commander of the Faithful.
And that, madam, is my story.
The other Calender then told his story.
" My name is Agib, and I am the son of a king called Cassib, who reigned over a large kingdom, which had for its capital one of the finest seaport towns in the world."
Story of the Third Calendar, Son of a King
My story, said the Third Calender, is quite different from those of my two friends. It was fate that deprived them of the
sight of their right eyes, but mine was lost by my own folly.
My name is Agib, and I am the son of a king called Cassib, who reigned over a large kingdom, which had for its capital one
of the finest seaport towns in the world.
When I succeeded to my father's throne my first care was to visit the provinces on the mainland, and then to sail to the
numerous islands which lay off the shore, in order to gain the hearts of my subjects. These voyages gave me such a taste for
sailing that I soon determined to explore more distant seas, and commanded a fleet of large ships to be got ready without
delay. When they were properly fitted out I embarked on my expedition.
For forty days wind and weather were all in our favour, but the next night a terrific storm arose, which blew us hither
and thither for ten days, till the pilot confessed that he had quite lost his bearings. Accordingly a sailor was sent up to
the masthead to try to catch a sight of land, and reported that nothing was to be seen but the sea and sky, except a huge mass
of blackness that lay astern.
On hearing this the pilot grew white, and, beating his breast, he cried, "Oh, sir, we are lost, lost!" till the ship's
crew trembled at they knew not what. When he had recovered himself a little, and was able to explain the cause of his terror,
he replied, in answer to my question, that we had drifted far out of our course, and that the following day about noon we
should come near that mass of darkness, which, said he, is nothing but the famous Black Mountain. This mountain is composed of
adamant, which attracts to itself all the iron and nails in your ship; and as we are helplessly drawn nearer, the force of
attraction will become so great that the iron and nails will fall out of the ships and cling to the mountain, and the ships
will sink to the bottom with all that are in them. This it is that causes the side of the mountain towards the sea to appear
of such a dense blackness.
As may be supposed--continued the pilot--the mountain sides are very rugged, but on the summit stands a brass dome
supported on pillars, and bearing on top the figure of a brass horse, with a rider on his back. This rider wears a
breastplate of lead, on which strange signs and figures are engraved, and it is said that as long as this statue remains on
the dome, vessels will never cease to perish at the foot of the mountain.
So saying, the pilot began to weep afresh, and the crew, fearing their last hour had come, made their wills, each one in
favour of his fellow.
At noon next day, as the pilot had foretold, we were so near to the Black Mountain that we saw all the nails and iron fly
out of the ships and dash themselves against the mountain with a horrible noise. A moment after the vessels fell asunder and
sank, the crews with them. I alone managed to grasp a floating plank, and was driven ashore by the wind, without even a
scratch. What was my joy on finding myself at the bottom of some steps which led straight up the mountain, for there was not
another inch to the right or the left where a man could set his foot. And, indeed, even the steps themselves were so narrow
and so steep that, if the lightest breeze had arisen, I should certainly have been blown into the sea.
When I reached the top I found the brass dome and the statue exactly as the pilot had described, but was too wearied with
all I had gone through to do more than glance at them, and, flinging myself under the dome, was asleep in an instant. In my
dreams an old man appeared to me and said, "Hearken, Agib! As soon as thou art awake dig up the ground underfoot, and thou
shalt find a bow of brass and three arrows of lead. Shoot the arrows at the statue, and the rider shall tumble into the sea,
but the horse will fall down by thy side, and thou shalt bury him in the place from which thou tookest the bow and arrows.
This being done the sea will rise and cover the mountain, and on it thou wilt perceive the figure of a metal man seated in a
boat, having an oar in each hand. Step on board and let him conduct thee; but if thou wouldest behold thy kingdom again, see
that thou takest not the name of Allah into thy mouth."
Having uttered these words the vision left me, and I woke, much comforted. I sprang up and drew the bow and arrows out of
the ground, and with the third shot the horseman fell with a great crash into the sea, which instantly began to rise, so
rapidly, that I had hardly time to bury the horse before the boat approached me. I stepped silently in and sat down, and the
metal man pushed off, and rowed without stopping for nine days, after which land appeared on the horizon. I was so overcome
with joy at this sight that I forgot all the old man had told me, and cried out, "Allah be praised! Allah be praised!"
The words were scarcely out of my mouth when the boat and man sank from beneath me, and left me floating on the surface.
All that day and the next night I swam and floated alternately, making as well as I could for the land which was nearest to
me. At last my strength began to fail, and I gave myself up for lost, when the wind suddenly rose, and a huge wave cast me on
a flat shore. Then, placing myself in safety, I hastily spread my clothes out to dry in the sun, and flung myself on the warm
ground to rest.
Next morning I dressed myself and began to look about me. There seemed to be no one but myself on the island, which was
covered with fruit trees and watered with streams, but seemed a long distance from the mainland which I hoped to reach.
Before, however, I had time to feel cast down, I saw a ship making directly for the island, and not knowing whether it would
contain friends or foes, I hid myself in the thick branches of a tree.
The sailors ran the ship into a creek, where ten slaves landed, carrying spades and pickaxes. In the middle of the island
they stopped, and after digging some time, lifted up what seemed to be a trapdoor. They then returned to the vessel two or
three times for furniture and provisions, and finally were accompanied by an old man, leading a handsome boy of fourteen or
fifteen years of age. They all disappeared down the trapdoor, and after remaining below for a few minutes came up again, but
without the boy, and let down the trapdoor, covering it with earth as before. This done, they entered the ship and set sail.
As soon as they were out of sight, I came down from my tree, and went to the place where the boy had been buried. I dug
up the earth till I reached a large stone with a ring in the centre. This, when removed, disclosed a flight of stone steps
which led to a large room richly furnished and lighted by tapers. On a pile of cushions, covered with tapestry, sat the boy.
He looked up, startled and frightened at the sight of a stranger in such a place, and to soothe his fears, I at once spoke:
"Be not alarmed, sir, whoever you may be. I am a king, and the son of a king, and will do you no hurt. On the contrary,
perhaps I have been sent here to deliver you out of this tomb, where you have been buried alive."
Hearing my words, the young man recovered himself, and when I had ended, he said, "The reasons, Prince, that have caused
me to be buried in this place are so strange that they cannot but surprise you. My father is a rich merchant, owning much land
and many ships, and has great dealings in precious stones, but he never ceased mourning that he had no child to inherit his
"At length one day he dreamed that the following year a son would be born to him, and when this actually happened, he
consulted all the wise men in the kingdom as to the future of the infant. One and all they said the same thing. I was to live
happily till I was fifteen, when a terrible danger awaited me, which I should hardly escape. If, however, I should succeed in
doing so, I should live to a great old age. And, they added, when the statue of the brass horse on the top of the mountain of
adamant is thrown into the sea by Agib, the son of Cassib, then beware, for fifty days later your son shall fall by his hand!
"This prophecy struck the heart of my father with such woe, that he never got over it, but that did not prevent him from
attending carefully to my education till I attained, a short time ago, my fifteenth birthday. It was only yesterday that the
news reached him that ten days previously the statue of brass had been thrown into the sea, and he at once set about hiding me
in this underground chamber, which was built for the purpose, promising to fetch me out when the forty days have passed. For
myself, I have no fears, as Prince Agib is not likely to come here to look for me."
I listened to his story with an inward laugh as to the absurdity of my ever wishing to cause the death of this harmless
boy, whom I hastened to assure of my friendship and even of my protection; begging him, in return, to convey me in his
father's ship to my own country. I need hardly say that I took special care not to inform him that I was the Agib whom he
The day passed in conversation on various subjects, and I found him a youth of ready wit and of some learning. I took on
myself the duties of a servant, held the basin and water for him when he washed, prepared the dinner and set it on the table.
He soon grew to love me, and for thirty-nine days we spent as pleasant an existence as could be expected underground.
The morning of the fortieth dawned, and the young man when he woke gave thanks in an outburst of joy that the danger was
passed. "My father may be here at any moment," said he, "so make me, I pray you, a bath of hot water, that I may bathe, and
change my clothes, and be ready to receive him."
So I fetched the water as he asked, and washed and rubbed him, after which he lay down again and slept a little. When he
opened his eyes for the second time, he begged me to bring him a melon and some sugar, that he might eat and refresh himself.
I soon chose a fine melon out of those which remained, but could find no knife to cut it with. "Look in the cornice over
my head," said he, "and I think you will see one." It was so high above me, that I had some difficulty in reaching it, and
catching my foot in the covering of the bed, I slipped, and fell right upon the young man, the knife going straight into his
At this awful sight I shrieked aloud in my grief and pain. I threw myself on the ground and rent my clothes and tore my
hair with sorrow. Then, fearing to be punished as his murderer by the unhappy father, I raised the great stone which blocked
the staircase, and quitting the underground chamber, made everything fast as before.
Scarcely had I finished when, looking out to sea, I saw the vessel heading for the island, and, feeling that it would be
useless for me to protest my innocence, I again concealed myself among the branches of a tree that grew near by.
The old man and his slaves pushed off in a boat directly the ship touched land, and walked quickly towards the entrance to
the underground chamber; but when they were near enough to see that the earth had been disturbed, they paused and changed
colour. In silence they all went down and called to the youth by name; then for a moment I heard no more. Suddenly a fearful
scream rent the air, and the next instant the slaves came up the steps, carrying with them the body of the old man, who had
fainted from sorrow! Laying him down at the foot of the tree in which I had taken shelter, they did their best to recover him,
but it took a long while. When at last he revived, they left him to dig a grave, and then laying the young man's body in it,
they threw in the earth.
This ended, the slaves brought up all the furniture that remained below, and put it on the vessel, and breaking some
boughs to weave a litter, they laid the old man on it, and carried him to the ship, which spread its sails and stood out to
So once more I was quite alone, and for a whole month I walked daily over the island, seeking for some chance of escape.
At length one day it struck me that my prison had grown much larger, and that the mainland seemed to be nearer. My heart beat
at this thought, which was almost too good to be true. I watched a little longer: there was no doubt about it, and soon there
was only a tiny stream for me to cross.
Even when I was safe on the other side I had a long distance to go on the mud and sand before I reached dry ground, and
very tired I was, when far in front of me I caught sight of a castle of red copper, which, at first sight, I took to be a
fire. I made all the haste I could, and after some miles of hard walking stood before it, and gazed at it in astonishment,
for it seemed to me the most wonderful building I had ever beheld. While I was still staring at it, there came towards me a
tall old man, accompanied by ten young men, all handsome, and all blind of the right eye.
Now in its way, the spectacle of ten men walking together, all blind of the right eye, is as uncommon as that of a copper
castle, and I was turning over in my mind what could be the meaning of this strange fact, when they greeted me warmly, and
inquired what had brought me there. I replied that my story was somewhat long, but that if they would take the trouble to sit
down, I should be happy to tell it them. When I had finished, the young men begged that I would go with them to the castle,
and I joyfully accepted their offer. We passed through what seemed to me an endless number of rooms, and came at length into a
large hall, furnished with ten small blue sofas for the ten young men, which served as beds as well as chairs, and with
another sofa in the middle for the old man. As none of the sofas could hold more than one person, they bade me place myself on
the carpet, and to ask no questions about anything I should see.
After a little while the old man rose and brought in supper, which I ate heartily, for I was very hungry. Then one of the
young men begged me to repeat my story, which had struck them all with astonishment, and when I had ended, the old man was
bidden to "do his duty," as it was late, and they wished to go to bed. At these words he rose, and went to a closet, from
which he brought out ten basins, all covered with blue stuff. He set one before each of the young men, together with a
When the covers were taken off the basins, I saw they were filled with ashes, coal-dust, and lamp-black. The young men
mixed these all together, and smeared the whole over their heads and faces. They then wept and beat their breasts, crying,
"This is the fruit of idleness, and of our wicked lives."
This ceremony lasted nearly the whole night, and when it stopped they washed themselves carefully, and put on fresh
clothes, and lay down to sleep.
All this while I had refrained from questions, though my curiosity almost seemed to burn a hole in me, but the following
day, when we went out to walk, I said to them, "Gentlemen, I must disobey your wishes, for I can keep silence no more. You do
not appear to lack wit, yet you do such actions as none but madmen could be capable of. Whatever befalls me I cannot forbear
asking, `Why you daub your faces with black, and how it is you are all blind of one eye?'" But they only answered that such
questions were none of my business, and that I should do well to hold my peace.
During that day we spoke of other things, but when night came, and the same ceremony was repeated, I implored them most
earnestly to let me know the meaning of it all.
"It is for your own sake," replied one of the young men, "that we have not granted your request, and to preserve you from
our unfortunate fate. If, however, you wish to share our destiny we will delay no longer."
I answered that whatever might be the consequence I wished to have my curiosity satisfied, and that I would take the
result on my own head. He then assured me that, even when I had lost my eye, I should be unable to remain with them, as their
number was complete, and could not be added to. But to this I replied that, though I should be grieved to part company with
such honest gentlemen, I would not be turned from my resolution on that account.
On hearing my determination my ten hosts then took a sheep and killed it, and handed me a knife, which they said I should
by-and-by find useful. "We must sew you into this sheep-skin," said they, "and then leave you. A fowl of monstrous size,
called a roc, will appear in the air, taking you to be a sheep. He will snatch you up and carry you into the sky, but be not
alarmed, for he will bring you safely down and lay you on the top of a mountain. When you are on the ground cut the skin with
the knife and throw it off. As soon as the roc sees you he will fly away from fear, but you must walk on till you come to a
castle covered with plates of gold, studded with jewels. Enter boldly at the gate, which always stands open, but do not ask
us to tell you what we saw or what befel us there, for that you will learn for yourself. This only we may say, that it cost us
each our right eye, and has imposed upon us our nightly penance."
After the young gentlemen had been at the trouble of sewing the sheep-skin on me they left me, and retired to the hall. In
a few minutes the roc appeared, and bore me off to the top of the mountain in his huge claws as lightly as if I had been a
feather, for this great white bird is so strong that he has been known to carry even an elephant to his nest in the hills.
The moment my feet touched the ground I took out my knife and cut the threads that bound me, and the sight of me in my
proper clothes so alarmed the roc that he spread his wings and flew away. Then I set out to seek the castle.
I found it after wandering about for half a day, and never could I have imagined anything so glorious. The gate led into
a square court, into which opened a hundred doors, ninety-nine of them being of rare woods and one of gold. Through each of
these doors I caught glimpses of splendid gardens or of rich storehouses.
Entering one of the doors which was standing open I found myself in a vast hall where forty young ladies, magnificently
dressed, and of perfect beauty, were reclining. As soon as they saw me they rose and uttered words of welcome, and even
forced me to take possession of a seat that was higher than their own, though my proper place was at their feet. Not content
with this, one brought me splendid garments, while another filled a basin with scented water and poured it over my hands, and
the rest busied themselves with preparing refreshments. After I had eaten and drunk of the most delicate food and rarest
wines, the ladies crowded round me and begged me to tell them all my adventures.
By the time I had finished night had fallen, and the ladies lighted up the castle with such a prodigious quantity of
tapers that even day could hardly have been brighter. We then sat down to a supper of dried fruits and sweetmeats, after
which some sang and others danced. I was so well amused that I did not notice how the time was passing, but at length one of
the ladies approached and informed me it was midnight, and that, as I must be tired, she would conduct me to the room that had
been prepared for me. Then, bidding me good-night, I was left to sleep.
I spent the next thirty-nine days in much the same way as the first, but at the close of that time the ladies appeared (as
was their custom) in my room one morning to inquire how I had slept, and instead of looking cheerful and smiling they were in
floods of tears. "Prince," said they, "we must leave you, and never was it so hard to part from any of our friends. Most
likely we shall never see you again, but if you have sufficient self-command perhaps we may yet look forward to a meeting."
"Ladies," I replied, "what is the meaning of these strange words-- I pray you to tell me?"
"Know then," answered one of them, "that we are all princesses-- each a king's daughter. We live in this castle together,
in the way that you have seen, but at the end of every year secret duties call us away for the space of forty days. The time
has now come; but before we depart, we will leave you our keys, so that you may not lack entertainment during our absence.
But one thing we would ask of you. The Golden Door, alone, forbear to open, as you value your own peace, and the happiness of
your life. That door once unlocked, we must bid you farewell for ever."
Weeping, I assured them of my prudence, and after embracing me tenderly, they went their ways.
Every day I opened two or three fresh doors, each of which contained behind it so many curious things that I had no chance
of feeling dull, much as I regretted the absence of the ladies. Sometimes it was an orchard, whose fruit far exceeded in
bigness any that grew in my father's garden. Sometimes it was a court planted with roses, jessamine, dafeodils, hyacinths and
anemones, and a thousand other flowers of which I did not know the names. Or again, it would be an aviary, fitted with all
kinds of singing birds, or a treasury heaped up with precious stones; but whatever I might see, all was perfect of its own
It was court planted with roses, jassamine, dafeodils
Thirty-nine days passed away more rapidly than I could have conceived possible, and the following morning the princesses
were to return to the castle. But alas! I had explored every corner, save only the room that was shut in by the Golden Door,
and I had no longer anything to amuse myself with. I stood before the forbidden place for some time, gazing at its beauty;
then a happy inspiration struck me, that because I unlocked the door it was not necessary that I should enter the chamber. It
would be enough for me to stand outside and view whatever hidden wonders might be therein.
Thus arguing against my own conscience, I turned the key, when a smell rushed out that, pleasant though it was, overcame
me completely, and I fell fainting across the threshold. Instead of being warned by this accident, directly I came to myself
I went for a few moments into the air to shake of the effects of the perfume, and then entered boldly. I found myself in a
large, vaulted room, lighted by tapers, scented with aloes and ambergris, standing in golden candle-sticks, whilst gold and
silver lamps hung from the ceiling.
Though objects of rare workmanship lay heaped around me, I paid them scant attention, so much was I struck by a great
black horse which stood in one corner, the handsomest and best-shaped animal I had ever seen. His saddle and bridle were of
massive gold, curiously wrought; one side of his trough was filled with clean barley and sesame, and the other with rose
water. I led the animal into the open air, and then jumped on his back, shaking the reins as I did so, but as he never
stirred, I touched him lightly with a switch I had picked up in his stable. No sooner did he feel the stroke, than he spread
his wings (which I had not perceived before), and flew up with me straight into the sky. When he had reached a prodigious
height, he next darted back to earth, and alighted on the terrace belonging to a castle, shaking me violently out of the
saddle as he did so, and giving me such a blow with his tail, that he knocked out my right eye.
Half-stunned as I was with all that had happened to me, I rose to my feet, thinking as I did so of what had befallen the
ten young men, and watching the horse which was soaring into the clouds. I left the terrace and wandered on till I came to a
hall, which I knew to have been the one from which the roc had taken me, by the ten blue sofas against the wall.
The ten young men were not present when I first entered, but came in soon after, accompanied by the old man. They greeted
me kindly, and bewailed my misfortune, though, indeed, they had expected nothing less. "All that has happened to you," they
said, "we also have undergone, and we should be enjoying the same happiness still, had we not opened the Golden Door while the
princesses were absent. You have been no wiser than we, and have suffered the same punishment. We would gladly receive you
among us, to perform such penance as we do, but we have already told you that this is impossible. Depart, therefore, from
hence and go to the Court of Bagdad, where you shall meet with him that can decide your destiny." They told me the way I was
to travel, and I left them.
On the road I caused my beard and eyebrows to be shaved, and put on a Calender's habit. I have had a long journey, but
arrived this evening in the city, where I met my brother Calenders at the gate, being strangers like myself. We wondered much
at one another, to see we were all blind of the same eye, but we had no leisure to discourse at length of our common
calamities. We had only so much time as to come hither to implore those favours which you have been generously pleased to
He finished, and it was Zobeida's turn to speak: "Go wherever you please," she said, addressing all three. "I pardon you
all, but you must depart immediately out of this house."
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The illustrations are by Rene Bull (1872 - 1942) illustrations 1912) and Maxfield Parish (1870 - 1966) illustrations 1909) and W. Heath Robinson (1872 - 1944) illustrations 1899) also H. J. Ford (1860- 1941) illustrations 1898)